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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19583-19596; doi:10.3390/s150819583

Multi-Sensor Approach for the Monitoring of Halitosis Treatment via Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)—Containing Lozenges—A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

1
Department MESVA, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio ed. Delta 6, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy
2
University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, I.R.R.C.S. San Raffaele Hospital, 20100 Milano, Italy
3
Center for Integrated Research—CIR, Unit of Electronics for Sensor Systems, "Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma", Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 10 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate whether a recently described multi-sensor approach called BIONOTE® is accurate enough to verify the efficacy of treatment of patients with halitosis. A treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)–containing lozenges, compared with placebo was tested. The BIONOTE® was compared with traditional techniques used to detect halitosis: OralChroma™ and two calibrated odor judges enrolled for the organoleptic assessments. Twenty patients (10 treated and 10 placebo), suffering from active phase halitosis were included in the study. Treatment consisted of Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)—containing lozenges or placebo, 4 tablets/day for 14 days. t0 was before the beginning of the study; t1 was day 7 and t2 was day 14. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed through: (1) Rosenberg score; (2) Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI) anterior and posterior; (2) OralChroma™; (3) the new developed multi-sensor approach, called BIONOTE® (test technique). Only the WTCI anterior revealed statistically significant changes between t0 and t2 data (p = 0.014) in the treated group. Except for the WTCI anterior, all diagnostic methods revealed the lack of effectiveness for halitosis of a 14-days treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)–containing lozenges. The BIONOTE® multisensor system seems accurate in addition to OralChroma™ to assess the initial condition of halitosis and its mitigation during treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: halitosis; bad breath; electronic nose; chemical sensors; sensor array; probiotics halitosis; bad breath; electronic nose; chemical sensors; sensor array; probiotics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marchetti, E.; Tecco, S.; Santonico, M.; Vernile, C.; Ciciarelli, D.; Tarantino, E.; Marzo, G.; Pennazza, G. Multi-Sensor Approach for the Monitoring of Halitosis Treatment via Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)—Containing Lozenges—A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Sensors 2015, 15, 19583-19596.

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