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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19393-19415; doi:10.3390/s150819393

Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

Ultrasound Research Institute, Kaunas University of Technology, Barsausko st. 59, Kaunas LT-51368, Lithuania
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Academic Editor: Feng Xia
Received: 7 May 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasonic measurements; density; extreme conditions ultrasonic measurements; density; extreme conditions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kazys, R.; Sliteris, R.; Rekuviene, R.; Zukauskas, E.; Mazeika, L. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions. Sensors 2015, 15, 19393-19415.

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