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Sensors 2015, 15(7), 16388-16411; doi:10.3390/s150716388

PARAFAC Decomposition for Ultrasonic Wave Sensing of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Procedure and Evaluation

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, Shinagawa 140-0011, Japan
Graduate school of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)


Ultrasonic wave-sensing technology has been applied for the health monitoring of composite structures, using normal fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors with a high-speed wavelength interrogation system of arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) filters; however, researchers are required to average thousands of repeated measurements to distinguish significant signals. To resolve this bottleneck problem, this study established a signal-processing strategy that improves the signal-to-noise ratio for the one-time measured signal of ultrasonic waves, by application of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) technology that produces unique multiway decomposition without additional orthogonal or independent constraints. Through bandpass processing of the AWG filter and complex wavelet transforms, ultrasonic wave signals are preprocessed as time, phase, and frequency profiles, and then decomposed into a series of conceptual three-way atoms by PARAFAC. While an ultrasonic wave results in a Bragg wavelength shift, antiphase fluctuations can be observed at two adjacent AWG ports. Thereby, concentrating on antiphase features among the three-way atoms, a fitting atom can be chosen and then restored to three-way profiles as a final result. An experimental study has revealed that the final result is consistent with the conventional 1024-data averaging signal, and relative error evaluation has indicated that the signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasonic waves can be significantly improved. View Full-Text
Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; parallel factor analysis; signal-to-noise ratio; ultrasonic wave fiber Bragg grating; parallel factor analysis; signal-to-noise ratio; ultrasonic wave

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zheng, R.; Nakano, K.; Ohashi, R.; Okabe, Y.; Shimazaki, M.; Nakamura, H.; Wu, Q. PARAFAC Decomposition for Ultrasonic Wave Sensing of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Procedure and Evaluation. Sensors 2015, 15, 16388-16411.

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