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Sensors 2015, 15(7), 15090-15100; doi:10.3390/s150715090

A Double Transducer for High Precision Ultrasonic Time-Domain Reflectometry Measurements

1
Laboratory of Separation Technology, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FI-53851, Finland
2
Laboratory of Physics, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FIN-53851, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1178 KB, uploaded 26 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Membrane fouling, where unwanted particles accumulate on the membrane surface and reduce its permeability, causes problems in membrane filtration processes. With ultrasonic time-domain reflectometry (UTDR) it is possible to measure the extent of membrane fouling and hence take actions to minimize it. However, the usability of UTDR is very limited to constant filtration conditions if the sonic velocity, which has a great impact on UTDR measurement accuracy, is unknown. With a reference transducer the actual sonic velocity can be measured. This requires another transducer to be installed in the module, where there may be only limited space or the module dimensions may not be suitable for the reference transducer. A double transducer described in this study eliminates the need for a separate reference transducer because in the double transducer the reference measurement is included in the design of the transducer holder. Two sensors in the same holder require less space. Other advantage is that the double transducer can be placed near the measurement target and hence the local sonic velocity can be determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasonic time-domain reflectometry; UTDR; time-of-flight measurement; environmental compensation; reference transducer; double transducer; piezoelectric ultrasonic time-domain reflectometry; UTDR; time-of-flight measurement; environmental compensation; reference transducer; double transducer; piezoelectric
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stade, S.; Hakkarainen, T.; Kallioinen, M.; Mänttäri, M.; Tuuva, T. A Double Transducer for High Precision Ultrasonic Time-Domain Reflectometry Measurements. Sensors 2015, 15, 15090-15100.

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