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Sensors 2015, 15(6), 13548-13567; doi:10.3390/s150613548

Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing

Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorenzo Pavesi
Received: 16 May 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Based Optical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2090 KB, uploaded 10 June 2015]   |  


In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated waveguide sensors; optical sensing; Vernier effect; silicon integrated waveguide sensors; optical sensing; Vernier effect; silicon

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Troia, B.; Khokhar, A.Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Reynolds, S.A.; Hu, Y.; Mashanovich, G.Z.; Passaro, V.M.N. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing. Sensors 2015, 15, 13548-13567.

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