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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 11741-11768; doi:10.3390/s150511741

An Ultra-Low Power Wireless Sensor Network for Bicycle Torque Performance Measurements

1
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
2
College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Techniques, Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad 10062, Iraq
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)

Abstract

In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient transmission technique known as the sleep/wake algorithm for a bicycle torque sensor node. This paper aims to highlight the trade-off between energy efficiency and the communication range between the cyclist and coach. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment utilised the Zigbee protocol (XBee S2), and the second experiment used the Advanced and Adaptive Network Technology (ANT) protocol based on the Nordic nRF24L01 radio transceiver chip. The current consumption of ANT was measured, simulated and compared with a torque sensor node that uses the XBee S2 protocol. In addition, an analytical model was derived to correlate the sensor node average current consumption with a crank arm cadence. The sensor node achieved 98% power savings for ANT relative to ZigBee when they were compared alone, and the power savings amounted to 30% when all components of the sensor node are considered. The achievable communication range was 65 and 50 m for ZigBee and ANT, respectively, during measurement on an outdoor cycling track (i.e., velodrome). The conclusions indicate that the ANT protocol is more suitable for use in a torque sensor node when power consumption is a crucial demand, whereas the ZigBee protocol is more convenient in ensuring data communication between cyclist and coach. View Full-Text
Keywords: ANT; bicycle torque; energy-efficient; track cycling; wireless sensor network; ZigBee ANT; bicycle torque; energy-efficient; track cycling; wireless sensor network; ZigBee
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gharghan, S.K.; Nordin, R.; Ismail, M. An Ultra-Low Power Wireless Sensor Network for Bicycle Torque Performance Measurements. Sensors 2015, 15, 11741-11768.

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