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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 11239-11257; doi:10.3390/s150511239

NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings

1
Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Technology and Food Science Unit (T&V), Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 115, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
2
Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P.O. Box 135, 6700 AC Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Av. P. H. Rolfs, S/N, Viçosa, 36570-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
4
INRA-AgrocampusOuest, UMR1348 PEGASE, Domaine de la Prise, 35590 Saint Gilles, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3145 KB, uploaded 13 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) sensor for intensive spatial field monitoring of CO2 concentrations in a NV dairy cow house. This was achieved by comparing NDIR sensors with two commonly applied methods, a Photo-Acoustic Spectroscope (PAS) Gas Monitor and an Open-Path laser (OP-laser). First, calibrations for the NDIR sensors were obtained in the laboratory. Then, the NDIR sensors were placed in a dairy cow barn for comparison with the PAS and OP-laser methods. The main conclusions were: (a) in order to represent the overall barn CO2 concentration of the dairy cow barn, the number of NDIR sensors to be accounted for average concentration calculation was dependent on barn length and on barn area occupation; and (b) the NDIR CO2 sensors are suitable for multi-point monitoring of CO2 concentrations in NV livestock barns, being a feasible alternative for the PAS and the OP-laser methods to monitor single-point or averaged spatial CO2 concentrations in livestock barns. View Full-Text
Keywords: ventilation rate; CO2 mass balance; dairy barn; open-path laser; photo acoustic spectroscopy ventilation rate; CO2 mass balance; dairy barn; open-path laser; photo acoustic spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendes, L.B.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Edouard, N.; van Dooren, H.J.C.; Tinôco, I.F.F.; Mosquera, J. NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings. Sensors 2015, 15, 11239-11257.

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