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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6091-6104; doi:10.3390/s150306091

Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices

1
Nanomaterials Optoelectronics Laboratory, Polymer Program, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
2
Biorasis Inc., 23 Fellen Road, Storrs, CT 06268, USA
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
4
Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
5
Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 062032, USA
6
School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kagan Kerman
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 21 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
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Abstract

Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc.) on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr), the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3–4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanowire; nanogaps; microelectrode arrays; sensor; immunoassay; microfluidic; photolithography; isotropic etching nanowire; nanogaps; microelectrode arrays; sensor; immunoassay; microfluidic; photolithography; isotropic etching
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Doan, N.M.; Qiang, L.; Li, Z.; Vaddiraju, S.; Bishop, G.W.; Rusling, J.F.; Papadimitrakopoulos, F. Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices. Sensors 2015, 15, 6091-6104.

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