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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 4624-4642; doi:10.3390/s150304624

Distance Measurement Error in Time-of-Flight Sensors Due to Shot Noise

Centro de Investigación en Tecnoloxías da Información (CITIUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Department of Electronics, Computer Technologies and Projects, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202-Cartagena, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pavesi Lorenzo
Received: 26 December 2014 / Revised: 28 January 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Based Optical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [407 KB, uploaded 25 February 2015]   |  


Unlike other noise sources, which can be reduced or eliminated by different signal processing techniques, shot noise is an ever-present noise component in any imaging system. In this paper, we present an in-depth study of the impact of shot noise on time-of-flight sensors in terms of the error introduced in the distance estimation. The paper addresses the effect of parameters, such as the size of the photosensor, the background and signal power or the integration time, and the resulting design trade-offs. The study is demonstrated with different numerical examples, which show that, in general, the phase shift determination technique with two background measurements approach is the most suitable for pixel arrays of large resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-of-flight sensors; shot noise; standard CMOS technologies; distance measurement time-of-flight sensors; shot noise; standard CMOS technologies; distance measurement

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Illade-Quinteiro, J.; Brea, V.M.; López, P.; Cabello, D.; Doménech-Asensi, G. Distance Measurement Error in Time-of-Flight Sensors Due to Shot Noise. Sensors 2015, 15, 4624-4642.

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