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Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3650-3670; doi:10.3390/s150203650

Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

1
Department of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, Research Group on AgroICT & Precision Agriculture, Universitat de Lleida (UdL), Campus Cappont, Bldg CREA, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida, Spain
2
Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Campus Nord, Bldg D4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, Research Group on AgroICT & Precision Agriculture, Universitat de Lleida (UdL), Campus ETSEA, Av/ Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2319 KB, uploaded 4 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: lidar; spray drift; optomechanical design; signal-to-noise ratio; eye safety; pesticide; laser; remote sensing; agriculture lidar; spray drift; optomechanical design; signal-to-noise ratio; eye safety; pesticide; laser; remote sensing; agriculture
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gregorio, E.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sanz, R.; Rosell-Polo, J.R. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement. Sensors 2015, 15, 3650-3670.

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