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Sensors 2015, 15(12), 30981-30990; doi:10.3390/s151229839

Multiple Temperature-Sensing Behavior of Green and Red Upconversion Emissions from Stark Sublevels of Er3+

School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 7 September 2015 / Revised: 22 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2949 KB, uploaded 10 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Upconversion luminescence properties from the emissions of Stark sublevels of Er3+ were investigated in Er3+-Yb3+-Mo6+-codoped TiO2 phosphors in this study. According to the energy levels split from Er3+, green and red emissions from the transitions of four coupled energy levels, 2H11/2(I)/2H11/2(II), 4S3/2(I)/4S3/2(II), 4F9/2(I)/4F9/2(II), and 2H11/2(I) + 2H11/2(II)/4S3/2(I) + 4S3/2(II), were observed under 976 nm laser diode excitation. By utilizing the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique, temperature-dependent upconversion emissions from these four coupled energy levels were analyzed at length. The optical temperature-sensing behaviors of sensing sensitivity, measurement error, and operating temperature for the four coupled energy levels are discussed, all of which are closely related to the energy gap of the coupled energy levels, FIR value, and luminescence intensity. Experimental results suggest that Er3+-Yb3+-Mo6+-codoped TiO2 phosphor with four pairs of energy levels coupled by Stark sublevels provides a new and effective route to realize multiple optical temperature-sensing through a wide range of temperatures in an independent system. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature sensing; upconversion emissions; Stark sublevel; rare earth; sensitivity temperature sensing; upconversion emissions; Stark sublevel; rare earth; sensitivity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, B.; Wu, J.; Wang, X.; He, Y.; Feng, Z.; Dong, B. Multiple Temperature-Sensing Behavior of Green and Red Upconversion Emissions from Stark Sublevels of Er3+. Sensors 2015, 15, 30981-30990.

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