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Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28435-28455; doi:10.3390/s151128435

Wearable Goniometer and Accelerometer Sensory Fusion for Knee Joint Angle Measurement in Daily Life

1
Research Center E.Piaggio, University of Pisa, Largo L. Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Information Engineering Department, University of Pisa, Via G. Caruso 16, 56122 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oliver Amft
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Systems for Motion Capture and Interpretation)
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Abstract

Human motion analysis is crucial for a wide range of applications and disciplines. The development and validation of low cost and unobtrusive sensing systems for ambulatory motion detection is still an open issue. Inertial measurement systems and e-textile sensors are emerging as potential technologies for daily life situations. We developed and conducted a preliminary evaluation of an innovative sensing concept that combines e-textiles and tri-axial accelerometers for ambulatory human motion analysis. Our sensory fusion method is based on a Kalman filter technique and combines the outputs of textile electrogoniometers and accelerometers without making any assumptions regarding the initial accelerometer position and orientation. We used our technique to measure the flexion-extension angle of the knee in different motion tasks (monopodalic flexions and walking at different velocities). The estimation technique was benchmarked against a commercial measurement system based on inertial measurement units and performed reliably for all of the various tasks (mean and standard deviation of the root mean square error of 1:96 and 0:96, respectively). In addition, the method showed a notable improvement in angular estimation compared to the estimation derived by the textile goniometer and accelerometer considered separately. In future work, we will extend this method to more complex and multi-degree of freedom joints. View Full-Text
Keywords: wearable goniometers; accelerometers; data fusion; human motion analysis; joint angle measurements; knitted piezoresistive fabrics; smart textiles; sensor to segment alignment; knee joint wearable goniometers; accelerometers; data fusion; human motion analysis; joint angle measurements; knitted piezoresistive fabrics; smart textiles; sensor to segment alignment; knee joint
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tognetti, A.; Lorussi, F.; Carbonaro, N.; de Rossi, D. Wearable Goniometer and Accelerometer Sensory Fusion for Knee Joint Angle Measurement in Daily Life. Sensors 2015, 15, 28435-28455.

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