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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 24961-24976; doi:10.3390/s151024961

A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment

1
Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1888 KB, uploaded 23 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis, diagnosis, drug release and even healthcare technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental implant system; intra-oral biosensor platform; glucose oxidase (GOD); blood sugar level; Diabetes Mellitus (DM) dental implant system; intra-oral biosensor platform; glucose oxidase (GOD); blood sugar level; Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.-J.; Lu, C.-C. A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment. Sensors 2015, 15, 24961-24976.

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