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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 24681-24697; doi:10.3390/s151024681

Synergy Effect of Nanocrystalline Cellulose for the Biosensing Detection of Glucose

1
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
3
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
4
Division of Materials Science, Composite Centre Sweden, Lulea University of Technology, 97187 Lulea, Sweden
5
Department of Wood and Paper Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 31585-4313, 31587-77871 Karaj, Iran
6
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1796 KB, uploaded 24 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Integrating polypyrrole-cellulose nanocrystal-based composites with glucose oxidase (GOx) as a new sensing regime was investigated. Polypyrrole-cellulose nanocrystal (PPy-CNC)-based composite as a novel immobilization membrane with unique physicochemical properties was found to enhance biosensor performance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that fibers were nanosized and porous, which is appropriate for accommodating enzymes and increasing electron transfer kinetics. The voltammetric results showed that the native structure and biocatalytic activity of GOx immobilized on the PPy-CNC nanocomposite remained and exhibited a high sensitivity (ca. 0.73 μA·mM−1), with a high dynamic response ranging from 1.0 to 20 mM glucose. The modified glucose biosensor exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of (50 ± 10) µM and also excludes interfering species, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, and cholesterol, which makes this sensor suitable for glucose determination in real samples. This sensor displays an acceptable reproducibility and stability over time. The current response was maintained over 95% of the initial value after 17 days, and the current difference measurement obtained using different electrodes provided a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.47%. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose biosensor; cellulose nanocrystals; GOx; PPy-CNC nanocomposite; chemical polymerization; direct electrochemistry glucose biosensor; cellulose nanocrystals; GOx; PPy-CNC nanocomposite; chemical polymerization; direct electrochemistry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Esmaeili, C.; Abdi, M.M.; Mathew, A.P.; Jonoobi, M.; Oksman, K.; Rezayi, M. Synergy Effect of Nanocrystalline Cellulose for the Biosensing Detection of Glucose. Sensors 2015, 15, 24681-24697.

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