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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 515-528; doi:10.3390/s150100515

Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

1
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, Torino 10125, Italy
2
Physics Department and NIS Center, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, Torino 10125, Italy
3
Department of Drug Science and Technology and NIS Center, University of Torino, Corso Raffaello 30, Torino 10125, Italy
4
Department of Applied Science and Technology—DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129, Italy
5
Nanofacility Piemonte, National Institute of Metrologic Research (INRiM), Strada delle Cacce 91, Torino 10135, Italy
6
Institute of Electron Devices and Circuits, Ulm University, Ulm 89069, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2655 KB, uploaded 30 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-crystal diamond; ion beam lithography; electrochemistry single-crystal diamond; ion beam lithography; electrochemistry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Carbone, E.; Croin, L.; Enrico, E.; Forneris, J.; Gosso, S.; Olivero, P.; Pasquarelli, A.; Carabelli, V. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography. Sensors 2015, 15, 515-528.

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