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Sensors 2014, 14(7), 11580-11594; doi:10.3390/s140711580
Article

The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China) Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor

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Received: 15 May 2014; in revised form: 24 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 30 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract: This study presents results from field surveys performed over various seasons in a large, eutrophic, shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China) using an in situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence sensor as a surrogate for other water quality parameters. These measurements identified highly significant empirical relationships between CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. CDOM concentration expressed in quinine sulfate equivalent units, was highly correlated with the CDOM absorption coefficient (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.001), fluorescence intensities (Ex./Em. 370/460 nm) (r2 = 0.91, p < 0.001), the fluorescence index (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) and the humification index (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.001), suggesting that CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor could act as a substitute for the CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence measured in the laboratory. Similarly, CDOM concentration was highly correlated with DOC concentration (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.001), indicating that in situ CDOM fluorescence sensor measurements could be a proxy for DOC concentration. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between laboratory CDOM absorption coefficients and COD (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.001), TP (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001) concentrations, suggesting a potential further application for the real-time monitoring of water quality using an in situ CDOM fluorescence sensor.
Keywords: chromophoric dissolved organic matter; dissolved organic carbon; fluorescence; real-time monitoring; water quality parameters chromophoric dissolved organic matter; dissolved organic carbon; fluorescence; real-time monitoring; water quality parameters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Niu, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Shi, K.; Liu, X.; Qin, B. The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China) Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor. Sensors 2014, 14, 11580-11594.

AMA Style

Niu C, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Shi K, Liu X, Qin B. The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China) Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor. Sensors. 2014; 14(7):11580-11594.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niu, Cheng; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang. 2014. "The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China) Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor." Sensors 14, no. 7: 11580-11594.


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