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Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10709-10724; doi:10.3390/s140610709

Application of an Electronic Nose Instrument to Fast Classification of Polish Honey Types

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

The paper presents practical utilization of an electronic nose prototype, based on the FIGARO semiconductor sensors, in fast classification of Polish honey types—acacia flower, linden flower, rape, buckwheat and honeydew ones. A set of thermostating modules of the prototype provided gradient temperature characteristics of barbotage-prepared gas mixtures and stable measurement conditions. Three chemometric data analysis methods were employed for the honey samples classification: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and cluster analysis (CA) with the furthest neighbour method. The investigation confirmed usefulness of this type of instrument in correct classification of all aforementioned honey types. In order to provide optimum measurement conditions during honey samples classification the following parameters were selected: volumetric flow rate of carrier gas—15 L/h, barbotage temperature—35 °C, time of sensor signal acquisition since barbotage process onset—60 s. Chemometric analysis allowed discrimination of three honey types using PCA and CA and all five honey types with LDA. The reproducibility of 96% of the results was within the range 4.9%–8.6% CV. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; honey; PCA; LDA; cluster analysis electronic nose; honey; PCA; LDA; cluster analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dymerski, T.; Gębicki, J.; Wardencki, W.; Namieśnik, J. Application of an Electronic Nose Instrument to Fast Classification of Polish Honey Types. Sensors 2014, 14, 10709-10724.

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