Next Article in Journal
A New Acquisition and Imaging System for Environmental Measurements: An Experience on the Italian Cultural Heritage
Previous Article in Journal
A Measuring System for Well Logging Attitude and a Method of Sensor Calibration
Sensors 2014, 14(5), 9271-9289; doi:10.3390/s140509271
Article

MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

* ,
,
,
 and
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Key Laboratory for Remote Sensing of Environment and Digital Cities, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1261 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI) by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS), which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.
Keywords: optical sensor; linear array; clumping index; coniferous optical sensor; linear array; clumping index; coniferous
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, Y.; Fu, L.; Han, W.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, J. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement. Sensors 2014, 14, 9271-9289.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert