Sensors 2014, 14(5), 9271-9289; doi:10.3390/s140509271
Article

MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

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Received: 6 January 2014; in revised form: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI) by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS), which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.
Keywords: optical sensor; linear array; clumping index; coniferous
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, Y.; Fu, L.; Han, W.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, J. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement. Sensors 2014, 14, 9271-9289.

AMA Style

Qu Y, Fu L, Han W, Zhu Y, Wang J. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement. Sensors. 2014; 14(5):9271-9289.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qu, Yonghua; Fu, Lizhe; Han, Wenchao; Zhu, Yeqing; Wang, Jindi. 2014. "MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement." Sensors 14, no. 5: 9271-9289.

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