Sensors 2014, 14(4), 5890-5928; doi:10.3390/s140405890
Review

Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

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Received: 11 February 2014; in revised form: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 26 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Biological and Chemical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach.
Keywords: sensor; active materials; chemical and biological detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehrabani, S.; Maker, A.J.; Armani, A.M. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors. Sensors 2014, 14, 5890-5928.

AMA Style

Mehrabani S, Maker AJ, Armani AM. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors. Sensors. 2014; 14(4):5890-5928.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M. 2014. "Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors." Sensors 14, no. 4: 5890-5928.

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