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Sensors 2014, 14(4), 5785-5804; doi:10.3390/s140405785

Minimal Camera Networks for 3D Image Based Modeling of Cultural Heritage Objects

Department of Earth Observation Science, Faculty ITC, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
Department of Surveying, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Cultural Heritage Diagnostics)


3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue “Lamassu”. Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm. View Full-Text
Keywords: camera network; visibility; ellipsoid of error; point cloud; FIS camera network; visibility; ellipsoid of error; point cloud; FIS

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alsadik, B.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.; Daham, A.; Jasim, L. Minimal Camera Networks for 3D Image Based Modeling of Cultural Heritage Objects. Sensors 2014, 14, 5785-5804.

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