Sensors 2014, 14(3), 5004-5040; doi:10.3390/s140305004
Article

Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Received: 12 December 2013; in revised form: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers’ point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; Seluge; Merkle tree; over-the-air programming; security
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doroodgar, F.; Razzaque, M.A.; Isnin, I.F. Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2014, 14, 5004-5040.

AMA Style

Doroodgar F, Razzaque MA, Isnin IF. Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2014; 14(3):5004-5040.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doroodgar, Farzan; Razzaque, Mohammad A.; Isnin, Ismail F. 2014. "Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors 14, no. 3: 5004-5040.

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