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Online Phase Detection Using Wearable Sensors for Walking with a Robotic Prosthesis
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška 25, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera 56025, Pisa, Italy
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels B-1050, Belgium
Fondazione don Carlo Gnocchi, Florence 50018, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2013; in revised form: 19 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 11 February 2014
Abstract: This paper presents a gait phase detection algorithm for providing feedback in walking with a robotic prosthesis. The algorithm utilizes the output signals of a wearable wireless sensory system incorporating sensorized shoe insoles and inertial measurement units attached to body segments. The principle of detecting transitions between gait phases is based on heuristic threshold rules, dividing a steady-state walking stride into four phases. For the evaluation of the algorithm, experiments with three amputees, walking with the robotic prosthesis and wearable sensors, were performed. Results show a high rate of successful detection for all four phases (the average success rate across all subjects >90%). A comparison of the proposed method to an off-line trained algorithm using hidden Markov models reveals a similar performance achieved without the need for learning dataset acquisition and previous model training.
Keywords: wearable sensory system; inertial sensors; instrumented insoles; gait phase detection; robotic prosthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Goršič, M.; Kamnik, R.; Ambrožič, L.; Vitiello, N.; Lefeber, D.; Pasquini, G.; Munih, M. Online Phase Detection Using Wearable Sensors for Walking with a Robotic Prosthesis. Sensors 2014, 14, 2776-2794.
Goršič M, Kamnik R, Ambrožič L, Vitiello N, Lefeber D, Pasquini G, Munih M. Online Phase Detection Using Wearable Sensors for Walking with a Robotic Prosthesis. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):2776-2794.
Goršič, Maja; Kamnik, Roman; Ambrožič, Luka; Vitiello, Nicola; Lefeber, Dirk; Pasquini, Guido; Munih, Marko. 2014. "Online Phase Detection Using Wearable Sensors for Walking with a Robotic Prosthesis." Sensors 14, no. 2: 2776-2794.