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Sensors 2014, 14(2), 2280-2304; doi:10.3390/s140202280

Monitoring of Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Concrete Using Embedded Sensors and Ultrasonic Imaging

1,* , 1
1 Instituto de Tecnologías Físicas y de la Información "Leonardo Torres Quevedo", ITEFI (CSIC), 28006, Madrid, Spain 2 Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, E.T.S.I.C.C.P., U.P.M. 28040, Madrid, Spain 3 Departamento de Vehículos Aeroespaciales, E.U.I.T. Aeronáutica, U.P.M. 28040, Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh-Environment Applications)


This paper deals with the study of damage produced during freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles using two non-destructive measurement approaches—the first approach devoted to continuous monitoring using embedded sensors during the cycles, and the second one, performing ultrasonic imaging before and after the cycles. Both methodologies have been tested in two different types of concrete specimens, with and without air-entraining agents. Using the first measurement approach, the size and distribution of pores were estimated using a thermoporometrical model and continuous measurements of temperature and ultrasonic velocity along cycles. These estimates have been compared with the results obtained using mercury porosimetry testing. In the second approach, the damage due to F-T cycles has been evaluated by automated ultrasonic transmission and pulse-echo inspections made before and after the cycles. With these inspections the variations in the dimensions, velocity and attenuation caused by the accelerated F-T cycles were determined.
Keywords: freeze-thaw cycles; monitoring; concrete; embedded sensors; ultrasound freeze-thaw cycles; monitoring; concrete; embedded sensors; ultrasound
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ranz, J.; Aparicio, S.; Romero, H.; Casati, M.J.; Molero, M.; González, M. Monitoring of Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Concrete Using Embedded Sensors and Ultrasonic Imaging. Sensors 2014, 14, 2280-2304.

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