Sensors 2014, 14(2), 2110-2134; doi:10.3390/s140202110
Article

Gaze Tracking System for User Wearing Glasses

Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Conventional gaze tracking systems are limited in cases where the user is wearing glasses because the glasses usually produce noise due to reflections caused by the gaze tracker’s lights. This makes it difficult to locate the pupil and the specular reflections (SRs) from the cornea of the user’s eye. These difficulties increase the likelihood of gaze detection errors because the gaze position is estimated based on the location of the pupil center and the positions of the corneal SRs. In order to overcome these problems, we propose a new gaze tracking method that can be used by subjects who are wearing glasses. Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, we construct a new control device for the illuminator, which includes four illuminators that are positioned at the four corners of a monitor. Second, our system automatically determines whether a user is wearing glasses or not in the initial stage by counting the number of white pixels in an image that is captured using the low exposure setting on the camera. Third, if it is determined that the user is wearing glasses, the four illuminators are turned on and off sequentially in order to obtain an image that has a minimal amount of noise due to reflections from the glasses. As a result, it is possible to avoid the reflections and accurately locate the pupil center and the positions of the four corneal SRs. Fourth, by turning off one of the four illuminators, only three corneal SRs exist in the captured image. Since the proposed gaze detection method requires four corneal SRs for calculating the gaze position, the unseen SR position is estimated based on the parallelogram shape that is defined by the three SR positions and the gaze position is calculated. Experimental results showed that the average gaze detection error with 20 persons was about 0.70° and the processing time is 63.72 ms per each frame.
Keywords: gaze tracking; glasses; controlling device for illuminator; pupil and corneal specular reflection
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [6736 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 21 June 2014 11:49 CEST]
The original version is still available [1583 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014 11:49 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Gwon, S.Y.; Cho, C.W.; Lee, H.C.; Lee, W.O.; Park, K.R. Gaze Tracking System for User Wearing Glasses. Sensors 2014, 14, 2110-2134.

AMA Style

Gwon SY, Cho CW, Lee HC, Lee WO, Park KR. Gaze Tracking System for User Wearing Glasses. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):2110-2134.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gwon, Su Y.; Cho, Chul W.; Lee, Hyeon C.; Lee, Won O.; Park, Kang R. 2014. "Gaze Tracking System for User Wearing Glasses." Sensors 14, no. 2: 2110-2134.

Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert