Sensors 2014, 14(2), 1902-1917; doi:10.3390/s140201902

Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan 2 Department of Engineering Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China 3 Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Institute, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China 4 School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China 5 School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD 4001, Australia 6 Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan 7 State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 23 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract: A new wave energy flow (WEF) map concept was proposed in this work. Based on it, an improved technique incorporating the laser scanning method and Betti’s reciprocal theorem was developed to evaluate the shape and size of damage as well as to realize visualization of wave propagation. In this technique, a simple signal processing algorithm was proposed to construct the WEF map when waves propagate through an inspection region, and multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors were employed to improve inspection reliability. Various damages in aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates were experimentally and numerically evaluated to validate this technique. The results show that it can effectively evaluate the shape and size of damage from wave field variations around the damage in the WEF map.
Keywords: nondestructive inspection; ultrasonic waves; wave energy flow; signal processing; visualization technique

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Hu, N.; Xu, H.; Yuan, W.; Yan, C.; Li, Y.; Goda, R.; Alamusi; Qiu, J.; Ning, H.; Wu, L. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors. Sensors 2014, 14, 1902-1917.

AMA Style

Liu Y, Hu N, Xu H, Yuan W, Yan C, Li Y, Goda R, Alamusi, Qiu J, Ning H, Wu L. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):1902-1917.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Xu, Hong; Yuan, Weifeng; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Goda, Riu; Alamusi; Qiu, Jinhao; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke. 2014. "Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors." Sensors 14, no. 2: 1902-1917.

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