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Sensors Best Paper Award 2014
Sensors 2014, 14(2), 1902-1917; doi:10.3390/s140201902
Article

Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors

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Received: 27 November 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 23 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: A new wave energy flow (WEF) map concept was proposed in this work. Based on it, an improved technique incorporating the laser scanning method and Betti’s reciprocal theorem was developed to evaluate the shape and size of damage as well as to realize visualization of wave propagation. In this technique, a simple signal processing algorithm was proposed to construct the WEF map when waves propagate through an inspection region, and multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors were employed to improve inspection reliability. Various damages in aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates were experimentally and numerically evaluated to validate this technique. The results show that it can effectively evaluate the shape and size of damage from wave field variations around the damage in the WEF map.
Keywords: nondestructive inspection; ultrasonic waves; wave energy flow; signal processing; visualization technique nondestructive inspection; ultrasonic waves; wave energy flow; signal processing; visualization technique
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Hu, N.; Xu, H.; Yuan, W.; Yan, C.; Li, Y.; Goda, R.; Alamusi; Qiu, J.; Ning, H.; Wu, L. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors. Sensors 2014, 14, 1902-1917.

AMA Style

Liu Y, Hu N, Xu H, Yuan W, Yan C, Li Y, Goda R, Alamusi, Qiu J, Ning H, Wu L. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):1902-1917.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Xu, Hong; Yuan, Weifeng; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Goda, Riu; Alamusi; Qiu, Jinhao; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke. 2014. "Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors." Sensors 14, no. 2: 1902-1917.


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