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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23885-23904; doi:10.3390/s141223885

Multisensory System for Fruit Harvesting Robots. Experimental Testing in Natural Scenarios and with Different Kinds of Crops

1
Centre for Automation and Robotics (CAR) CSIC-UPM, Ctra. Campo Real, Km. 0,200, La Poveda. Arganda del Rey, Madrid 28500, Spain
2
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technological University of Panama, Panama City 0819, Panama
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 11 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
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Abstract

The motivation of this research was to explore the feasibility of detecting and locating fruits from different kinds of crops in natural scenarios. To this end, a unique, modular and easily adaptable multisensory system and a set of associated pre-processing algorithms are proposed. The offered multisensory rig combines a high resolution colour camera and a multispectral system for the detection of fruits, as well as for the discrimination of the different elements of the plants, and a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) camera that provides fast acquisition of distances enabling the localisation of the targets in the coordinate space. A controlled lighting system completes the set-up, increasing its flexibility for being used in different working conditions. The pre-processing algorithms designed for the proposed multisensory system include a pixel-based classification algorithm that labels areas of interest that belong to fruits and a registration algorithm that combines the results of the aforementioned classification algorithm with the data provided by the TOF camera for the 3D reconstruction of the desired regions. Several experimental tests have been carried out in outdoors conditions in order to validate the capabilities of the proposed system. View Full-Text
Keywords: precision agriculture; fruit detection; multisensory system; time-of-flight camera; multispectral system; optical filters precision agriculture; fruit detection; multisensory system; time-of-flight camera; multispectral system; optical filters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández, R.; Salinas, C.; Montes, H.; Sarria, J. Multisensory System for Fruit Harvesting Robots. Experimental Testing in Natural Scenarios and with Different Kinds of Crops. Sensors 2014, 14, 23885-23904.

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