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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23283-23306; doi:10.3390/s141223283

Droplet Microfluidics for Chip-Based Diagnostics

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB-T2N 1N4, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opto-Microfluidics for Bio Applications)
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Abstract

Droplet microfluidics (DMF) is a fluidic handling technology that enables precision control over dispensing and subsequent manipulation of droplets in the volume range of microliters to picoliters, on a micro-fabricated device. There are several different droplet actuation methods, all of which can generate external stimuli, to either actively or passively control the shape and positioning of fluidic droplets over patterned substrates. In this review article, we focus on the operation and utility of electro-actuation-based DMF devices, which utilize one or more micro-/nano-patterned substrates to facilitate electric field-based handling of chemical and/or biological samples. The underlying theory of DMF actuations, device fabrication methods and integration of optical and opto-electronic detectors is discussed in this review. Example applications of such electro-actuation-based DMF devices have also been included, illustrating the various actuation methods and their utility in conducting chip-based laboratory and clinical diagnostic assays. View Full-Text
Keywords: droplet microfluidics; electro-actuation; dielectrophoresis; electrowetting; electrostatic force; nucleic acid; PCR; qPCR; immunoassays; proteomics; photomultiplier tube droplet microfluidics; electro-actuation; dielectrophoresis; electrowetting; electrostatic force; nucleic acid; PCR; qPCR; immunoassays; proteomics; photomultiplier tube
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaler, K.V.I.S.; Prakash, R. Droplet Microfluidics for Chip-Based Diagnostics. Sensors 2014, 14, 23283-23306.

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