Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1654-1664; doi:10.3390/s140101654
Article

Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine

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Received: 5 December 2013; in revised form: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: We describe a chemical sensor based on a simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) for the detection of dopamine molecules by a potentiometric approach. The polar nature of dopamine leads to a change of surface charges on the ZNR surface via metal ligand bond formation which results in a measurable electrical signal. ZNRs were grown on a gold-coated glass substrate by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. Polymeric membranes incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate was immobilized on the ZNR surface. The fabricated electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The grown ZNRs were well aligned and exhibited good crystal quality. The present sensor system displays a stable potential response for the detection of dopamine in 10−2 mol·L−1 acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.45 within a wide concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M–1 × 10−1 M, with sensitivity of 49 mV/decade. The electrode shows a good response time (less than 10 s) and excellent repeatability. This finding can contribute to routine analysis in laboratories studying the neuropharmacology of catecholamines. Moreover, the metal-ligand bonds can be further exploited to detect DA receptors, and for bio-imaging applications.
Keywords: ZnO nanorods; dopamine; potentiometric response; selectivity; stability; repeatability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elhag, S.; Ibupoto, Z.H.; Nur, O.; Willander, M. Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine. Sensors 2014, 14, 1654-1664.

AMA Style

Elhag S, Ibupoto ZH, Nur O, Willander M. Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine. Sensors. 2014; 14(1):1654-1664.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elhag, Sami; Ibupoto, Zafar H.; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus. 2014. "Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine." Sensors 14, no. 1: 1654-1664.

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