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Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1654-1664; doi:10.3390/s140101654
Article

Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine

* ,
,
 and
Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Norrköping SE-60174, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

We describe a chemical sensor based on a simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) for the detection of dopamine molecules by a potentiometric approach. The polar nature of dopamine leads to a change of surface charges on the ZNR surface via metal ligand bond formation which results in a measurable electrical signal. ZNRs were grown on a gold-coated glass substrate by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. Polymeric membranes incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate was immobilized on the ZNR surface. The fabricated electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The grown ZNRs were well aligned and exhibited good crystal quality. The present sensor system displays a stable potential response for the detection of dopamine in 10−2 mol·L−1 acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.45 within a wide concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M–1 × 10−1 M, with sensitivity of 49 mV/decade. The electrode shows a good response time (less than 10 s) and excellent repeatability. This finding can contribute to routine analysis in laboratories studying the neuropharmacology of catecholamines. Moreover, the metal-ligand bonds can be further exploited to detect DA receptors, and for bio-imaging applications.
Keywords: ZnO nanorods; dopamine; potentiometric response; selectivity; stability; repeatability ZnO nanorods; dopamine; potentiometric response; selectivity; stability; repeatability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Elhag, S.; Ibupoto, Z.H.; Nur, O.; Willander, M. Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine. Sensors 2014, 14, 1654-1664.

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