Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Sensors 2013, 13(9), 12012-12029; doi:10.3390/s130912012
Article

Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

1
, 1
, 2
 and 2,*
Received: 23 July 2013; in revised form: 1 September 2013 / Accepted: 1 September 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Abstract: Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ) = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.
Keywords: quartz crystal microbalance; high fundamental frequency; allan deviation; turbulences; laminar flow element; acceleration sensitivity; temperature gradient quartz crystal microbalance; high fundamental frequency; allan deviation; turbulences; laminar flow element; acceleration sensitivity; temperature gradient
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Wessels, A.; Klöckner, B.; Siering, C.; Waldvogel, S.R. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow. Sensors 2013, 13, 12012-12029.

AMA Style

Wessels A, Klöckner B, Siering C, Waldvogel SR. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow. Sensors. 2013; 13(9):12012-12029.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wessels, Alexander; Klöckner, Bernhard; Siering, Carsten; Waldvogel, Siegfried R. 2013. "Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow." Sensors 13, no. 9: 12012-12029.



Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert