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Sensors 2013, 13(9), 11709-11727; doi:10.3390/s130911709
Article

Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure

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Received: 29 June 2013; in revised form: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013)
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Abstract: A new digital countermeasure against attacks related to the clock frequency is presented. This countermeasure, known as frequency sensor, consists of a local oscillator, a transition detector, a measurement element and an output block. The countermeasure has been designed using a full-custom technique implemented in an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), and the implementation has been verified and characterized with an integrated design using a 0.35 mm standard Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology (Very Large Scale Implementation—VLSI implementation). The proposed solution is configurable in resolution time and allowed range of period, achieving a minimum resolution time of only 1.91 ns and an initialization time of 5.84 ns. The proposed VLSI implementation shows better results than other solutions, such as digital ones based on semi-custom techniques and analog ones based on band pass filters, all design parameters considered. Finally, a counter has been used to verify the good performance of the countermeasure in avoiding the success of an attack.
Keywords: hardware security; VLSI; clock glitching; reverse engineering; frequency sensor hardware security; VLSI; clock glitching; reverse engineering; frequency sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiménez-Naharro, R.; Gómez-Galán, J.A.; Sánchez-Raya, M.; Gómez-Bravo, F.; Pedro-Carrasco, M. Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure. Sensors 2013, 13, 11709-11727.

AMA Style

Jiménez-Naharro R, Gómez-Galán JA, Sánchez-Raya M, Gómez-Bravo F, Pedro-Carrasco M. Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure. Sensors. 2013; 13(9):11709-11727.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiménez-Naharro, Raúl; Gómez-Galán, Juan A.; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Pedro-Carrasco, Manuel. 2013. "Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure." Sensors 13, no. 9: 11709-11727.


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