Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10348-10357; doi:10.3390/s130810348
Communication

The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures

1 Center for Applied Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 2 Photonics Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
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Abstract: This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s) were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee’s Patellar Tendon (PT) bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.
Keywords: prosthetic socket; trans-tibial amputee; interface pressure; fiber Bragg grating sensor

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Fakih, E.A.; Osman, N.A.A.; Eshraghi, A.; Adikan, F.R.M. The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures. Sensors 2013, 13, 10348-10357.

AMA Style

Al-Fakih EA, Osman NAA, Eshraghi A, Adikan FRM. The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):10348-10357.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A.; Osman, Noor A.A.; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Adikan, Faisal R.M. 2013. "The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures." Sensors 13, no. 8: 10348-10357.

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