Next Article in Journal
The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures
Next Article in Special Issue
A Refractive Index Sensor Based on the Resonant Coupling to Cladding Modes in a Fiber Loop
Previous Article in Journal
A Subcarrier-Pair Based Resource Allocation Scheme Using Proportional Fairness for Cooperative OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter
Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10333-10347; doi:10.3390/s130810333
Article

3D Finite Element Model for Writing Long-Period Fiber Gratings by CO2 Laser Radiation

1,2,* , 1
,
1
 and
1
1 Laboratory of Optics, Lasers and Systems, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campus do Lumiar, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, Building D, 1649-038 Lisboa, Portugal 2 Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa 1749-016, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [786 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

In the last years, mid-infrared radiation emitted by CO2 lasers has become increasing popular as a tool in the development of long-period fiber gratings. However, although the development and characterization of the resulting sensing devices have progressed quickly, further research is still necessary to consolidate functional models, especially regarding the interaction between laser radiation and the fiber’s material. In this paper, a 3D finite element model is presented to simulate the interaction between laser radiation and an optical fiber and to determine the resulting refractive index change. Dependence with temperature of the main parameters of the optical fiber materials (with special focus on the absorption of incident laser radiation) is considered, as well as convection and radiation losses. Thermal and residual stress analyses are made for a standard single mode fiber, and experimental results are presented.
Keywords: laser processing; long-period fiber gratings; finite element modeling; fiber-based sensors; refractive-index modulation; thermo-mechanical processes laser processing; long-period fiber gratings; finite element modeling; fiber-based sensors; refractive-index modulation; thermo-mechanical processes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Coelho, J.M.P.; Nespereira, M.; Abreu, M.; Rebordão, J. 3D Finite Element Model for Writing Long-Period Fiber Gratings by CO2 Laser Radiation. Sensors 2013, 13, 10333-10347.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert