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Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients
Atmospheric Environment Laboratory, Department of Environment & Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
Kimberly-Clark Corporation 81, Digital Valley-ro, SuJi-gu, YongIn-si, GyeongGi-do 448-160, Korea
Current address: Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur C.G. 495009, India.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2013; in revised form: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
Abstract: In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.
Keywords: incontinence; urinary; volatiles; GC; HPLC; incontinence pads; sample collection; glass impinger
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MDPI and ACS Style
Pandey, S.K.; Kim, K.-H.; Choi, S.O.; Sa, I.Y.; Oh, S.Y. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients. Sensors 2013, 13, 8523-8533.
Pandey SK, Kim K-H, Choi SO, Sa IY, Oh SY. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):8523-8533.
Pandey, Sudhir K.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si O.; Sa, In Y.; Oh, Soo Y. 2013. "Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients." Sensors 13, no. 7: 8523-8533.