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Sensors 2013, 13(7), 8523-8533; doi:10.3390/s130708523
Article

Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

1,†
, 1,* , 2
, 2 and 2
Received: 23 May 2013; in revised form: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
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Abstract: In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.
Keywords: incontinence; urinary; volatiles; GC; HPLC; incontinence pads; sample collection; glass impinger incontinence; urinary; volatiles; GC; HPLC; incontinence pads; sample collection; glass impinger
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pandey, S.K.; Kim, K.-H.; Choi, S.O.; Sa, I.Y.; Oh, S.Y. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients. Sensors 2013, 13, 8523-8533.

AMA Style

Pandey SK, Kim K-H, Choi SO, Sa IY, Oh SY. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):8523-8533.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pandey, Sudhir K.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si O.; Sa, In Y.; Oh, Soo Y. 2013. "Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients." Sensors 13, no. 7: 8523-8533.



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