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Sensors 2013, 13(7), 8445-8460; doi:10.3390/s130708445
Article

Self-Assembled 3D ZnO Porous Structures with Exposed Reactive {0001} Facets and Their Enhanced Gas Sensitivity

1
,
2
,
2
 and
1,*
1 School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering, QUT, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia 2 School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2013)
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Abstract

Complex three-dimensional structures comprised of porous ZnO plates were synthesized in a controlled fashion by hydrothermal methods. Through subtle changes to reaction conditions, the ZnO structures could be self-assembled from 20 nm thick nanosheets into grass-like and flower-like structures which led to the exposure of high proportions of ZnO {0001} crystal facets for both these materials. The measured surface area of the flower-like and the grass, or platelet-like ZnO samples were 72.8 and 52.4 m2∙g−1, respectively. Gas sensing results demonstrated that the porous, flower-like ZnO structures exhibited enhanced sensing performance towards NO2 gas compared with either grass-like ZnO or commercially sourced ZnO nanoparticle samples. The porous, flower-like ZnO structures provided a high surface area which enhanced the ZnO gas sensor response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization revealed that flower-like ZnO samples possessed a higher percentage of oxygen vacancies than the other ZnO sample-types, which also contributed to their excellent gas sensing performance.
Keywords: zinc oxide; gas sensors; self-assembly; porous structure zinc oxide; gas sensors; self-assembly; porous structure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Chang, J.; Ahmad, M.Z.; Wlodarski, W.; Waclawik, E.R. Self-Assembled 3D ZnO Porous Structures with Exposed Reactive {0001} Facets and Their Enhanced Gas Sensitivity. Sensors 2013, 13, 8445-8460.

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