Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7902-7915; doi:10.3390/s130607902
Article

Estimation of Melanin and Hemoglobin Using Spectral Reflectance Images Reconstructed from a Digital RGB Image by the Wiener Estimation Method

1 Graduate School of Bio-applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, 184-8588 Tokyo, Japan 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kushiro National College of Technology, 2-32-1, Otanoshike-Nishi, Kushiro-Shi, 084-0916 Hokkaido, Japan 3 Graduate School of Bio-system Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Jonan, Yonezawa-Shi, 992-8510 Yamagata, Japan 4 College of Design and Manufacturing Technology, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran-shi, 050-8585 Hokkaido, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2013; in revised form: 12 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Imaging at the Microscale and Beyond)
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Abstract: A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance imaging method based on a single snap shot of Red-Green-Blue images acquired with the exposure time of 65 ms (15 fps) was investigated for estimating melanin concentration, blood concentration, and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue. The technique utilizes the Wiener estimation method to deduce spectral reflectance images instantaneously from an RGB image. Using the resultant absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments on fingers during upper limb occlusion demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin.
Keywords: multi-spectral imaging; diffuse reflectance; skin; melanin; oxygenated hemoglobin; deoxygenated hemoglobin; blood; tissue oxygen saturation; multiple regression analysis; Monte Carlo simulation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishidate, I.; Maeda, T.; Niizeki, K.; Aizu, Y. Estimation of Melanin and Hemoglobin Using Spectral Reflectance Images Reconstructed from a Digital RGB Image by the Wiener Estimation Method. Sensors 2013, 13, 7902-7915.

AMA Style

Nishidate I, Maeda T, Niizeki K, Aizu Y. Estimation of Melanin and Hemoglobin Using Spectral Reflectance Images Reconstructed from a Digital RGB Image by the Wiener Estimation Method. Sensors. 2013; 13(6):7902-7915.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nishidate, Izumi; Maeda, Takaaki; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa. 2013. "Estimation of Melanin and Hemoglobin Using Spectral Reflectance Images Reconstructed from a Digital RGB Image by the Wiener Estimation Method." Sensors 13, no. 6: 7902-7915.

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