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In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2013; in revised form: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Abstract: Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.
Keywords: fluorometer; fluorescence; phytoplankton; chlorophyll; Arduino; inexpensive; sensors; oceanography; technology; education
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MDPI and ACS Style
Leeuw, T.; Boss, E.S.; Wright, D.L. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics. Sensors 2013, 13, 7872-7883.
Leeuw T, Boss ES, Wright DL. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics. Sensors. 2013; 13(6):7872-7883.
Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Wright, Dana L. 2013. "In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics." Sensors 13, no. 6: 7872-7883.