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Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2013; in revised form: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer’s leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player’s swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement.
Keywords: golf swing; wearable motion sensors; motion deviations; improper motion; early phase motion analysis; principal components analysis
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Stančin, S.; Tomažič, S. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach. Sensors 2013, 13, 7505-7521.
Stančin S, Tomažič S. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach. Sensors. 2013; 13(6):7505-7521.
Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo. 2013. "Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach." Sensors 13, no. 6: 7505-7521.