Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6651-6668; doi:10.3390/s130506651
Article

Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm

1 Department of Communication and Systems, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK 2 Department of Business, Information Technology and Media, Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Jan-Magnus Janssons plats 1, Helsinki 00550, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2013; in revised form: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract: Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.
Keywords: mobile networks; MANET; MANET security; routing security; wormhole attack; hop count; queuing delay; packet processing time; TTHCA; MHA

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MDPI and ACS Style

Karlsson, J.; Dooley, L.S.; Pulkkis, G. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm. Sensors 2013, 13, 6651-6668.

AMA Style

Karlsson J, Dooley LS, Pulkkis G. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm. Sensors. 2013; 13(5):6651-6668.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S.; Pulkkis, Göran. 2013. "Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm." Sensors 13, no. 5: 6651-6668.

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