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Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, INTI International University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan 71800, Malaysia
Faculty of Science and Technology/South-East Asia Disaster Prevention Research Institute, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2013; in revised form: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Abstract: Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd), and pesticides (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and chlorpyrifos). The biosensor was produced by entrapping the cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa on a cellulose membrane, followed by applying a layer of pHEMA, and attaching it to a well. The well was then fixed to an optical probe which was connected to a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an electronic reader. The optimization of the biosensor using several factors such as amount of HEMA and drying temperature were undertaken. The detection limits of biosensor without pHEMA for Cu, Cd, Pb, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos were 1.195, 0.027, 0.0100, 0.025 and 0.025 µg/L respectively. The presence of pHEMA increased the limits of detection to 1.410, 0.250, 0.500, 0.235 and 0.117 µg/L respectively. pHEMA is known to enhance the reproducibility of the biosensor with average relative standard deviation (RSD) of ±1.76% for all the pollutants tested, 48% better than the biosensor without pHEMA (RSD = ±3.73%). In storability test with Cu 5 µg/L, the biosensor with pHEMA performed 11.5% better than the test without pHEMA on day-10 and 5.2% better on day-25. pHEMA is therefore a good candidate to be used in whole cell biosensors as it increases reproducibility and enhances biosensor storability.
Keywords: whole cell biosensor; pHEMA; heavy metals; pesticides
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wong, L.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Surif, S. Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection. Sensors 2013, 13, 6394-6404.
Wong LS, Lee YH, Surif S. Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection. Sensors. 2013; 13(5):6394-6404.
Wong, Ling Shing; Lee, Yook Heng; Surif, Salmijah. 2013. "Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection." Sensors 13, no. 5: 6394-6404.