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Toward One Giga Frames per Second — Evolution of in Situ Storage Image Sensors
Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi 1-1-1, Kusatsu 525-8577, Japan
Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Iiyama 1583, Atsugi 243-0297, Japan
Department of Microelectronics, Technische Universiteit, Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2013; in revised form: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Abstract: The ISIS is an ultra-fast image sensor with in-pixel storage. The evolution of the ISIS in the past and in the near future is reviewed and forecasted. To cover the storage area with a light shield, the conventional frontside illuminated ISIS has a limited fill factor. To achieve higher sensitivity, a BSI ISIS was developed. To avoid direct intrusion of light and migration of signal electrons to the storage area on the frontside, a cross-sectional sensor structure with thick pnpn layers was developed, and named “Tetratified structure”. By folding and looping in-pixel storage CCDs, an image signal accumulation sensor, ISAS, is proposed. The ISAS has a new function, the in-pixel signal accumulation, in addition to the ultra-high-speed imaging. To achieve much higher frame rate, a multi-collection-gate (MCG) BSI image sensor architecture is proposed. The photoreceptive area forms a honeycomb-like shape. Performance of a hexagonal CCD-type MCG BSI sensor is examined by simulations. The highest frame rate is theoretically more than 1Gfps. For the near future, a stacked hybrid CCD/CMOS MCG image sensor seems most promising. The associated problems are discussed. A fine TSV process is the key technology to realize the structure.
Keywords: imaging device; high-speed; image sensor; BSI; ISIS; ISAS
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Etoh, T.G.; Son, D.V.T.; Yamada, T.; Charbon, E. Toward One Giga Frames per Second — Evolution of in Situ Storage Image Sensors. Sensors 2013, 13, 4640-4658.
Etoh TG, Son DVT, Yamada T, Charbon E. Toward One Giga Frames per Second — Evolution of in Situ Storage Image Sensors. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):4640-4658.
Etoh, Takeharu G.; Son, Dao V.T.; Yamada, Tetsuo; Charbon, Edoardo. 2013. "Toward One Giga Frames per Second — Evolution of in Situ Storage Image Sensors." Sensors 13, no. 4: 4640-4658.