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Sensors 2013, 13(4), 4428-4449; doi:10.3390/s130404428
Article

Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

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Received: 28 February 2013; in revised form: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT) for NOx storage catalysts (NSC) enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with classical temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The NOx loading amount increases proportionally to the NOx exposure time at sorption temperature. The cumulated NOx exposure, as well as the corresponding NOx loading state, can be detected linearly by electrical means in two modes: (1) time-continuously during the sorption interval including NOx concentration information from the signal derivative or (2) during the short-term thermal NOx release.
Keywords: NOx dosimeter; lean NOx trap (LNT); precious metal free NOx storage catalyst (NSC); electrical TPD; accumulating sensing principle; low ppm-level NOx detection; in-situ catalyst loading state monitoring; ammonia SCR; three-way catalyst (TWC) NOx dosimeter; lean NOx trap (LNT); precious metal free NOx storage catalyst (NSC); electrical TPD; accumulating sensing principle; low ppm-level NOx detection; in-situ catalyst loading state monitoring; ammonia SCR; three-way catalyst (TWC)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Groß, A.; Kremling, M.; Marr, I.; Kubinski, D.J.; Visser, J.H.; Tuller, H.L.; Moos, R. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption. Sensors 2013, 13, 4428-4449.

AMA Style

Groß A, Kremling M, Marr I, Kubinski DJ, Visser JH, Tuller HL, Moos R. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):4428-4449.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Groß, Andrea; Kremling, Michael; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jacobus H.; Tuller, Harry L.; Moos, Ralf. 2013. "Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption." Sensors 13, no. 4: 4428-4449.


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