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Camera Sensor Arrangement for Crop/Weed Detection Accuracy in Agronomic Images
Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Informatics, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain
Department of Computer Architecture and Automatic Control, Faculty of Informatics, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain
Centre for Automation and Robotics (UPM-CSIC), Arganda del Rey 28500, Madrid, Spain
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2013; in revised form: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Abstract: In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor’s positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.
Keywords: weeds detection accuracy; crop lines detection accuracy; camera-based sensor; extrinsic and intrinsic parameters; uncontrolled illumination; lens vignetting correction
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Romeo, J.; Guerrero, J.M.; Montalvo, M.; Emmi, L.; Guijarro, M.; Gonzalez-de-Santos, P.; Pajares, G. Camera Sensor Arrangement for Crop/Weed Detection Accuracy in Agronomic Images. Sensors 2013, 13, 4348-4366.
Romeo J, Guerrero JM, Montalvo M, Emmi L, Guijarro M, Gonzalez-de-Santos P, Pajares G. Camera Sensor Arrangement for Crop/Weed Detection Accuracy in Agronomic Images. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):4348-4366.
Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José M.; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo. 2013. "Camera Sensor Arrangement for Crop/Weed Detection Accuracy in Agronomic Images." Sensors 13, no. 4: 4348-4366.