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Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector
Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2013; in revised form: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 1 February 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Abstract: We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a mid-infrared laser and detector utilizing a bi-functional quantum cascade active region. When biased, this active region provides optical gain, while it can be used as a detector at zero bias. With our novel approach we can measure the light intensity of the laser on the same chip without the need of external lenses or detectors. Based on a bound-to-continuum design, the bi-functional active region has an inherent broad electro-luminescence spectrum of 200 cm-1, which indicates its use for single mode laser arrays. We have measured a peak signal of 191.5 mV at the on-chip detector, without any amplification. The room-temperature pulsed emission with an averaged power consumption of 4 mW and the high-speed detection makes these devices ideal for low-power sensors. The combination of the on-chip detection functionality, the broad emission spectrum and the low average power consumption indicates the potential of our bi-functional quantum cascade structures to build a mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip based on quantum cascade laser technology.
Keywords: quantum cascade laser; quantum cascade detector; sensing; lab-on-a-chip; mid-infrared spectroscopy; monolithic integrated; bi-functional
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Schwarz, B.; Reininger, P.; Detz, H.; Zederbauer, T.; Andrews, A.M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G. Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector. Sensors 2013, 13, 2196-2205.
Schwarz B, Reininger P, Detz H, Zederbauer T, Andrews AM, Schrenk W, Strasser G. Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector. Sensors. 2013; 13(2):2196-2205.
Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron M.; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried. 2013. "Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector." Sensors 13, no. 2: 2196-2205.