Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens
School of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Ultimo 2007, New South Wales, Australia
Heart Research Institute, Newtown 2042, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2012; in revised form: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 30 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Abstract: Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.
Keywords: androgens; bioassay; designer; doping; mammalian; nutraceutical; steroid; supplement; testosterone; yeast
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Cooper, E.R.; McGrath, K.C.Y.; Heather, A.K. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens. Sensors 2013, 13, 2148-2163.
Cooper ER, McGrath KCY, Heather AK. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens. Sensors. 2013; 13(2):2148-2163.
Cooper, Elliot R.; McGrath, Kristine C.Y.; Heather, Alison K. 2013. "In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens." Sensors 13, no. 2: 2148-2163.