Sensors 2013, 13(2), 2148-2163; doi:10.3390/s130202148
Review

In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

1email, 1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 6 December 2012; in revised form: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 30 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract: Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.
Keywords: androgens; bioassay; designer; doping; mammalian; nutraceutical; steroid; supplement; testosterone; yeast
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cooper, E.R.; McGrath, K.C.Y.; Heather, A.K. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens. Sensors 2013, 13, 2148-2163.

AMA Style

Cooper ER, McGrath KCY, Heather AK. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens. Sensors. 2013; 13(2):2148-2163.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cooper, Elliot R.; McGrath, Kristine C.Y.; Heather, Alison K. 2013. "In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens." Sensors 13, no. 2: 2148-2163.


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