Sensors 2013, 13(12), 17067-17083; doi:10.3390/s131217067
Article

Adaptation of Soil Physical Measurement Techniques for the Delineation of Mud and Lakebed Sediments at Neusiedler See

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Received: 20 October 2013; in revised form: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 8 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: For many water management issues of shallow lakes with non-consolidated sediments hydrographic surveys of the open water area and reed belt areas are required. In the frame of water management strategy for the steppe lake Neusiedler See, located between Austria and Hungary, a hydrographic survey was conducted. In the open water area (water depth ≥1 m) a sediment echosounder was used. To validate these measurements and to distinguish between water, mud, and sediment layers in the shallow lake and reed belt area additional measurements were needed. As no common standard methods are available yet, we developed a measurement system based on two commonly applied soil physical measurement techniques providing reproducible physical values: a capacitive sensor and a cone penetrometer combined with GNSS-positioning enable dynamic measurements of georeferenced vertical water-mud-bedsediments profiles. The system bases on site-specific calibrated sensors and allows instantaneous, in situ measurements. The measurements manifest a sharp water-mud interface by a sudden decline to smaller water content which is a function of the dielectric permittivity. A second decline indicates the transition to compacted mud. That is concurrently the density where the penetrometer starts registering significant penetration resistance. The penetrometer detects shallow lakebed-sediment layers. Within the lake survey this measurement system was successfully tested.
Keywords: sediment profiles; mud layer delineation; shallow steppe lake; cone penetrometer; FDR; echo sounding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kogelbauer, I.; Heine, E.; D'Amboise, C.; Müllebner, C.; Sokol, W.; Loiskandl, W. Adaptation of Soil Physical Measurement Techniques for the Delineation of Mud and Lakebed Sediments at Neusiedler See. Sensors 2013, 13, 17067-17083.

AMA Style

Kogelbauer I, Heine E, D'Amboise C, Müllebner C, Sokol W, Loiskandl W. Adaptation of Soil Physical Measurement Techniques for the Delineation of Mud and Lakebed Sediments at Neusiedler See. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):17067-17083.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kogelbauer, Ilse; Heine, Erwin; D'Amboise, Christopher; Müllebner, Christoph; Sokol, Wolfgang; Loiskandl, Willibald. 2013. "Adaptation of Soil Physical Measurement Techniques for the Delineation of Mud and Lakebed Sediments at Neusiedler See." Sensors 13, no. 12: 17067-17083.


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