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Sensors 2013, 13(12), 16867-16881; doi:10.3390/s131216867
Article

Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

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Received: 16 November 2013; in revised form: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
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Abstract: Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME) unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and nitroglycerin (NG) as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME), coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L) with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30) to determine the true positive rates (TPR) and false positive detection rates (FPR) for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system) and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.
Keywords: planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME); solid phase microextraction (SPME); ion mobility spectrometer (IMS); military explosive; smokeless powder; receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME); solid phase microextraction (SPME); ion mobility spectrometer (IMS); military explosive; smokeless powder; receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Young, M.; Fan, W.; Raeva, A.; Almirall, J. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques. Sensors 2013, 13, 16867-16881.

AMA Style

Young M, Fan W, Raeva A, Almirall J. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):16867-16881.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Young, Mimy; Fan, Wen; Raeva, Anna; Almirall, Jose. 2013. "Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques." Sensors 13, no. 12: 16867-16881.


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