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Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15708-15725; doi:10.3390/s131115708
Article

On the Convergence of Ionospheric Constrained Precise Point Positioning (IC-PPP) Based on Undifferential Uncombined Raw GNSS Observations

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1 GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China 2 School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China 3 German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, Potsdam 14473, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications.
Keywords: precise point positioning; convergence time; receiver DCB; global ionosphere delay model (GIM); CMONOC precise point positioning; convergence time; receiver DCB; global ionosphere delay model (GIM); CMONOC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zhang, H.; Gao, Z.; Ge, M.; Niu, X.; Huang, L.; Tu, R.; Li, X. On the Convergence of Ionospheric Constrained Precise Point Positioning (IC-PPP) Based on Undifferential Uncombined Raw GNSS Observations. Sensors 2013, 13, 15708-15725.

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