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Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15633-15655; doi:10.3390/s131115633
Article

Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

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Received: 10 September 2013; in revised form: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh-Environment Applications)
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Abstract: The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.
Keywords: temperature measurement; waste-to-energy plants; uncertainty; suction pyrometers temperature measurement; waste-to-energy plants; uncertainty; suction pyrometers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rinaldi, F.; Najafi, B. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers. Sensors 2013, 13, 15633-15655.

AMA Style

Rinaldi F, Najafi B. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15633-15655.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad. 2013. "Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15633-15655.


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