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Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, Milano 20156, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2013; in revised form: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Abstract: The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.
Keywords: temperature measurement; waste-to-energy plants; uncertainty; suction pyrometers
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MDPI and ACS Style
Rinaldi, F.; Najafi, B. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers. Sensors 2013, 13, 15633-15655.
Rinaldi F, Najafi B. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15633-15655.
Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad. 2013. "Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15633-15655.