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Sensors 2013, 13(11), 14714-14727; doi:10.3390/s131114714
Article

A Microfluidic Bioreactor with in Situ SERS Imaging for the Study of Controlled Flow Patterns of Biofilm Precursor Materials

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Received: 7 September 2013; in revised form: 19 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Imaging at the Microscale and Beyond)
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Abstract: A microfluidic bioreactor with an easy to fabricate nano-plasmonic surface is demonstrated for studies of biofilms and their precursor materials via Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The system uses a novel design to induce sheath flow confinement of a sodium citrate biofilm precursor stream against the SERS imaging surface to measure spatial variations in the concentration profile. The unoptimised SERS enhancement was approximately 2.5 × 104, thereby improving data acquisition time, reducing laser power requirements and enabling a citrate detection limit of 0.1 mM, which was well below the concentrations used in biofilm nutrient solutions. The flow confinement was observed by both optical microscopy and SERS imaging with good complementarity. We demonstrate the new bioreactor by growing flow-templated biofilms on the microchannel wall. This work opens the way for in situ spectral imaging of biofilms and their biochemical environment under dynamic flow conditions.
Keywords: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; spectral imaging; microfluidic; biofilm; electroless deposition; bioreactor; plasmonic surfaces Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; spectral imaging; microfluidic; biofilm; electroless deposition; bioreactor; plasmonic surfaces
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Paquet-Mercier, F.; Aznaveh, N.B.; Safdar, M.; Greener, J. A Microfluidic Bioreactor with in Situ SERS Imaging for the Study of Controlled Flow Patterns of Biofilm Precursor Materials. Sensors 2013, 13, 14714-14727.

AMA Style

Paquet-Mercier F, Aznaveh NB, Safdar M, Greener J. A Microfluidic Bioreactor with in Situ SERS Imaging for the Study of Controlled Flow Patterns of Biofilm Precursor Materials. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):14714-14727.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paquet-Mercier, François; Aznaveh, Nahid B.; Safdar, Muhammad; Greener, Jesse. 2013. "A Microfluidic Bioreactor with in Situ SERS Imaging for the Study of Controlled Flow Patterns of Biofilm Precursor Materials." Sensors 13, no. 11: 14714-14727.


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