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Sensors 2013, 13(11), 14301-14320; doi:10.3390/s131114301

An Energy Efficient Stable Election-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

1 School of Computer and Software, Jiangsu Engineering Center of Network Monitoring, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China 2 School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116620, China 3 Computer Engineering Department, Kyung Hee University, Suwon 449-701, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Sensor nodes usually have limited energy supply and they are impractical to recharge. How to balance traffic load in sensors in order to increase network lifetime is a very challenging research issue. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed recently for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, sensor networks with one fixed sink node often suffer from a hot spots problem since nodes near sinks have more traffic burden to forward during a multi-hop transmission process. The use of mobile sinks has been shown to be an effective technique to enhance network performance features such as latency, energy efficiency, network lifetime, etc. In this paper, a modified Stable Election Protocol (SEP), which employs a mobile sink, has been proposed for WSNs with non-uniform node distribution. The decision of selecting cluster heads by the sink is based on the minimization of the associated additional energy and residual energy at each node. Besides, the cluster head selects the shortest path to reach the sink between the direct approach and the indirect approach with the use of the nearest cluster head. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance than traditional routing algorithms, such as LEACH and SEP.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; mobile sink; clustering; multi-hop; lifetime wireless sensor networks; mobile sink; clustering; multi-hop; lifetime
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Xia, F.; Yuan, W.; Lee, S. An Energy Efficient Stable Election-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2013, 13, 14301-14320.

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